Sunday, March 22, 2020

Malcolm X free essay sample

A discussion of the position that black separatism is important for black independence. This paper discusses the book The Autobiography of Malcolm X, based on material dictated by him and written by Alex Haley. It analyzes the argument by Malcolm X that black separatism is important for black independence. It outlines various concepts from the book, including civil rights versus human rights, and Malcolm Xs rejection of black integration. El-Hajj Malik El-Shabaz, Malcolm X, the African American leader who articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the early 1960s. His life story The Autobiography of Malcom X (1965) as told by Alex Haley made him an ideological hero, especially among black youth. The book tells of an honest story about the transformation from a bitter, self destructive and petty criminal into an articulated political activist. Malcolm X developed a brilliant platform style, which soon won him a large and dedicated following. We will write a custom essay sample on Malcolm X or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The widespread popularity of Malcolm X was because he proposed something very radical from his contemporary civil rights leader Martin Luther King. He believed that if Black Americans can unite in a platform they dont need any help because they are superior race than Whites. In 1964 Malcolm X went on his pilgrimage to Mecca, which is obligatory for Muslims, and their he began to reconsider changing his views towards integration, black separatism. He saw in his pilgrimage that White and Blacks can live in brotherhood he was deeply touched by this experienced and said that he no longer believed Whites to be innately evil.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

International Relations Term Paper Writing Guide

International Relations Term Paper Writing Guide International relations is a broad subject area with interrelated topics focusing on politics, economics, sociology, anthropology, and human rights, among others. Suppose this semester’s units in international relations focus on politics and economics, your professor is likely to assign you term paper assignments that require you to analyze international relations from a specific angle or examine the causes and effects of current events, trends, and policies. Therefore, your international relations paper should focus on choosing the right theme for the term paper to ensure you develop a high-quality international relations assignment. Your professor may assign you a term paper to assess your ability to grasp content, your level of understanding of concepts in international relations, your ability to synthesize theories in international relations studies, and your level of using concepts for applicability purposes. If your assigned term paper focuses on the analysis of internat ional relations, your lecturer may require you to analyze the relations between two economic regions or countries. In case of the latter, your analysis may focus on a discussion of the entire international system, patterns of current military alliances, or the distribution of power across regions. International relations essay topics focus on the interaction between nations and other social, political, and economic dynamics that affect interactions between countries. Regardless of this semesters area of concentration in your international relations field of study, understanding the common and most essential elements in writing your term papers is important. Term papers involve a wide range of mechanics and dynamics that should be met in every single writing. This guide provides you with significant international relations term paper writing prompts and tips on how to select topics for your international relations term paper, basic pre-writing tips, the importance of thesis statements and how to formulate them, and the recommended structure of a term paper. Follow the guidelines to ensure you meet your professor’s expectations and adhere to term paper writings recommendations. Basic Term Paper Pre Writing Tips Most students think that composing their term paper is the hardest part of the writing process. You may be among this lot and you are probably wondering from where to start your writing process. This guideline provides six practical prewriting steps that you need to consider before you begin writing your international relations term paper. The discussed steps will become vital the higher you go in your education ladder and will help you improve your writing skills tremendously. Free your mind of any stressful events and occurrences. Term paper assignments give students intense stress because of the need to perform well in the paper, lack of adequate time, and inadequate knowledge of the term paper writing process. In this case, take a moment to breathe your anxiety out and to ensure you are focused on your term paper research and writing process. Plan ahead. An effective term paper will require a lot of planning. The planning is multifaceted because it involves planning the topic you will write about, the ideas you need to incorporate in your paper, and the sources that will justify your claims. Besides planning the topic you are going to write about, you should create a timeline to give you benchmarks to help you to stay on schedule. Brainstorm. Before you settle on one idea or a single topic for your term paper, take time to think of ideas in international relations that interest you. Thinking of current events, gaps in literature, and explore lecturer notes to open your mind to new possibilities that may form part of your term paper. Any ideas that come to your mind, in this step, are important and should be considered for evaluation. Explore your ideas. The brainstormed ideas form an important start to your research process. You may need to conduct preliminary research based on your ideas to develop appropriate topics for your term paper, develop useful ideas and arguments, and identity sources you may need to support claims you make in the term paper. A simple online research or review of international relations books and journals may help you generate topics and term paper ideas. Make an outline. Outlining refers to mapping out your ideas and arguments in a logical manner. The outline will ensure your ideas are presented coherently and bring out an appropriate structure and content for your term paper. Besides, it will help ensure that your drafting process proceeds smoothly and your term paper is concise and coherent. Step Away. Preparation for the term paper writing process and the actual compilation should occur separately. In this case, take at least an hour after constructing your ideas into a draft. Stepping away provides you with objectivity and a fresh attitude that allows to visualize errors you might have made when defining your ideas, selecting a topic, or crafting your draft. Appropriate Methods to Select a Topic for Your International Relations Essay Brainstorm for ideas. Select a topic that interests you. You may need to respond to the following questions to help you generate ideas for your international relations topic. Do I have a strong opinion on a current issue affecting international relations? Have I encountered recent news feeds that have piqued my interest or made me anxious about certain aspects of international relations? Do I have a personal issue or interest that I would explore in the field of study? Is there an aspect of the international relations class that I am interested in learning more about? Research background information. Once you have generated your ideas, it is time to conduct research on background information concerning your ideas. In this case, you can read journal articles on two or three topics you are considering. You could also search for information on the internet or discuss with peers about current issues affecting chosen aspects of international relations. Conducting research provides you with a summary that enables you to obtain an overview of the topic and see how your generated ideas relate to broader issues. You may also find words that are commonly used to describe an international relations topic. Focus on the topic. Focusing on a topic occurs after you have settled on a probable term paper topic. You should focus the identified subject matter by keeping it manageable in a way that it is not too narrow or too broad. If the topic is too broad, you can use geographical, time, discipline, or population limiters to narrow it down. Conversely, use expanders based on timelines, specific areas of study, population, or region to broaden the topic. Define your topic as a focused research question. Formulate research questions that will guide you when searching for information on the chosen research topic. The research questions not only help in identifying aspects of the topic that should be incorporated on a topic but also help in analyzing the direction your term paper is likely to take. The next step involves formulating a thesis statement. Tips from Our Writers to Help Your Formulate a Thesis Statement for Your Term Paper The thesis statement of your term paper should tell the intended audience how your paper will interpret the significance of the international relations subject matter under discussion. It should also provide a roadmap for the entire paper; this implies that it should tell the reader what to expect from the term paper. If your term paper topic is based on a question, the thesis statement should provide direct answers to the question. A thesis is: Often an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. One that makes a claim that others might dispute. Is one or two sentences sentence at the end of your conclusion. Writing a thesis statement is a lengthy process that occurs after you have developed an argument on any topic, collected and organized evidence, and looked for possible relationships between known facts. Once you have gathered all the necessary information, you can now develop a working thesis. However, you can alter the thesis statement along the way when necessary. Besides, a thesis statement should be strong enough to convince the reader and achieve the objective of your term paper. To evaluate the strength of your term paper, you should ask the following questions. Does my thesis statement answer the study questions? Ensure you re-read the question prompt for your term paper after constructing the thesis statement to maintain the focus of the paper. Does my thesis statement present a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis statement simply states facts, it is not strong enough. It should not also provide facts that cannot be challenged or disagreed with. Is my thesis statement specific enough? Your thesis statements should not be too vague. If it is too vague, try making it specific by limiting its scope or explaining why you take a certain position. Does my thesis statement pique the reader’s interest? Does my thesis statement pass the â€Å"how and why?† criteria? If you feel your readers may ask they why and how questions after reading the thesis statement, then it is too open-ended and lacks appropriate guidance. How To Structure Your International Relations Term Paper The main elements that make up a term paper’s structure include an introduction, body, and conclusion. Introduction. Many students, even the seasoned writers, struggle when writing the introduction part of their term papers. The question that lingers on their mind is â€Å"in what way do I write term paper introduction?† This is an important question since the introduction is an important part that captures the interest of the reader and provides an overview of the paper. Several aspects should be considered before working on your term paper. They include: The background information for your paper and the appropriate literature review. The general statement of the research and discussion issue, as well as the purpose of your work. The thesis statement, which is the last and the most significant sentence of the introduction part. Working definitions for terms that may not be common in the international relations field of study. The general background information provided in the introduction provides a brief summary of what has already been done on the chosen international relations topic and shows the gaps in research that you intend to fill. The introduction should be clear and precise and should constitute at least 10% of the term paper. However, the length may vary depending on the term paper topic, its scope, and its length. Body. The body section is the most extended part of the term paper. It presents the paper’s arguments and provides facts, statistics, and information that serves as supporting evidence for the provided claims. The logical organization of body paragraphs is of uttermost importance in a term paper. Each paragraph presents an important theme or argument and should begin with a topic sentence. If your term paper is long, the body section can be subdivided using subheadings based on thematic topics. However, the subheadings should not be abrupt. Rather, they should provide a smooth transition from one section to another. Conclusion. The conclusion is the last main part of a term paper as it provides a summary and evaluation of the whole work and states how the work can benefit from further investigations. You should restate your thesis statement using different words and make any necessary inferences that conclude your paper. Recommendations are often necessary for international relations term papers. If your paper requires one, you can input recommendations at the conclusion section or you can present them as stand-alone texts. Post-Writing Tips The post writing tips in any term paper refer to review of the paper to ensure it is free of errors. You should conduct your review at the word, sentence, and paragraph level to ensure you have accurate wording, appropriate sentence structures, and effective presentation of paragraphs in a coherent and logical manner. A different aspect of proofreading involves referencing; in this regard, ensure you cite any borrowed sources you use in your term paper.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Writing a Management Report for the Case Company Zenith PM Essay

Writing a Management Report for the Case Company Zenith PM - Essay Example It also discusses the potential impact that Zenith PM would have to face as a result of the change in the method of construction. Additionally, the paper also confers how the company can carry out the implementation of offsite manufacturing in addition to the issue it would have to emphasis on for a smooth transition. Conclusively, the paper also presents all the risk management issues that Zenith PM needs to consider while exercising the approach offsite manufacturing. 1. Introduction The declining level of housing supply in the UK together with a huge increase in the number of households (Barker, 2003; DETR, 2000; ODPM, 2005), has led to an heightened requirement for new housing across the nation. This lead to widespread concerns, as to whether the traditional construction processes would be able to fulfil the mounting housing demand in addition to meeting the elevated quality standards (Barker, 2003; Housing Forum, 2002; ODPM, 2003). Consequently there have been extensive calls for the implementation of offsite manufacturing. Various reviews have recommended that the offsite manufacturing approach could both develop the quality of construction and counterbalance the effect of skills deficiencies in the construction industry. The UK Government had coined the term Modern Methods of Construction (MMC) to depict a number of modernizations and improvements in house building. A vast majority of these innovations are offsite manufacturing approaches, moving work from t he production location to the factory (Gibb, 1999). Many researchers have widely considered the advantages from the exercise of such technologies (Gibb, 1999; Housing Forum, 2002; Parry et al., 2003; Sparksman et al., 1999; Venables et al., 2004) and they principally take account of reductions in expenditure, time, faults, health as well as safety risks and ecological impact in addition to a resulting amplification in predictability, performance and earnings. Offsite manufacturing system is highly recognized in the United Kingdom. As a result, actions to support the implementation and acceptance of offsite construction techniques in the UK construction industry are substantial, consisting of a number of research initiatives, groups of practice and government endorsed forums. During the period 1997 to 2001, the UK government had been put in around ?5 million in research projects that were related to offsite construction and manufacturing. The industry funding into the modern methods of construction, during the same period of time was also approximately around ?5 million, making the cumulative funding in this field equivalent to ?10 million (Gibb, 2001). 2. Offsite Manufacturing Offsite manufacturing is a significant category of modern methods of construction. It can be referred to the segment of production procedure that is completed away from the location of the building in industrial units. Some of the examples of off-site manufacturing are panel building systems, modular construction, hybrid and sub-assemblies & components (Building Research Establishment, 2009). The panel building systems consist of walls, roofs and floors in the structure of flat pre-engineered panels. These panels are manufactured on site to build up the box like essentials of the construction, after

Monday, February 3, 2020

Jewish History Response Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Jewish History Response Paper - Essay Example This article effectively and efficiently handles these issues into various distinctive perspectives that are analytical and constructive in order to come up with a theoretical framework that can adequately assist in the fieldwork operations. The concept of analytic perspective adequately explores the ideal of understanding the challenges of the Jews in the United States in the last century. Through this exploration, there is an analysis of a post-ethical perspective that greatly favors voluntary over the involuntary associations. This will therefore balance an appreciation for various communities that are approved with a determination to create room for new communities plus promoting scholarly issues that incorporate solidarity through a wide scope of people with different racial and ethnic backgrounds. The post ethnic perspective will always hinder the basement of moral values and knowledge within individuals and the history of events though the operations within the past generation will detect that most of the ideas and values were at one point considered to be international and more precise on particular cultures. In the communities where ethnicity used to act as the core factor of identity, there is a crucial claim that the diversion in post ethnicity in the United States has made the American society to present distinctive challenges. Surprisingly, it is impossible to exactly trace and identify the actual period that the post ethical shift or rather conversion took place because there has always been an argument that these issues has been growing for approximately the past two decades. This article further argues that at the time an ethnic connection or rather bond is broken into a multi racial or multi ethnic integration then the historic or olden strategies that the Jewish facilitated to meet the requisites for survival of both the Judaism and

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Crisis Of Governance In Pakistan Politics Essay

Crisis Of Governance In Pakistan Politics Essay The concept of governance is as old as human civilization. The word governance has its origin in Greek and it means to steer. In simple words the governance is the process of decision making and the process by which it is implemented (or not implemented). Good governance means that the affairs of the state are managed honestly, with every system in place, where merit is never ignored, rules are meticulously followed and where everyone is equal before law. This could only be achieved if public institutions are strong, independent and responsive to the sentiments of the public. Governance is generally conceived as the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to improve the quality of life of the people. Governance is a continuous process where divergent opinions and desires are satisfied through compromise and tolerance in a spirit of cooperative action for the mutual benefit of the masses. The basic objective of good governance is to improve the quality of life of people, to ensure that their needs are met equitably. Politics is about the creation and distribution of power among organizations, tribes, communities or society at large. Governance is the mechanism, which controls the relationship between the two extremes the governed and the governors. The political process lies at the core of governance and this can be said to be efficient only if elections are free and fair, the elected are accountable, whereas authority is divided between the legislature, the bureaucracy and the judiciary with decentralization of power. 1.2 Why did I select this topic? Although there are a number of studies on the subject, yet they are generalized in nature and only a few researches have been made relevant to Pakistan. Therefore, emphasis of thesis would be on crisis of governance in Pakistan with special reference to the alien perception (to me, a misperception) of as a failed state because of its bad or misgovernance and its legal aspects. It will include the current situation, its causes and effects, its socio-economic and strategic aspect, the plight of common man and the causality between bad governance and incapacities of the state apparatus responsible for public service delivery and criminal justice system, as well as prospects of course of correction through reforms and institution building. For the preparation of this paper, numbers of research articles, journals and books written by national and international researchers and authors, and different case laws of the apex courts have been consulted. The concept of governance and crisis of governance have been discussed at length in these write-ups. Since the concept of governance in Pakistan has very recently gained focus, there are a few studies on this subject, available in public libraries. Some of the significant studies are briefly reviewed here. The Crisis of Governance and Human Development in South Asia  [2]  explains some of the main crisis of governance in South Asia, its causes and suggests ways to eradicate them. Panandiker has explained the main problems faced by the South Asian countries specially India and Pakistan relating to governance system  [3]  . Ehsan Niaz has discussed cultural aspect of the country right from 1947 and its affects upon governance. He has also explained the role of civil soci ety, politicians and bureaucracy to solve the problems of governance  [4]  . Jan Mohammad Dawood has explained the role and function of superior judiciary in the politics of Pakistan  [5]  . These views will be discussed with special reference to Pakistan. 1.3 Hypothesis/Research Question? Root cause of the crisis of governance in Pakistan is the failure on the part of our successive governments who did not focus their attention on institutional development. Instead, they weakened, corrupted and politicized the existing institutions to an extent that they have become almost non-functional. Research Questions What are the root causes of crisis of governance in Pakistan? What is good Governance and absence of it in Pakistan? Is the state willing to restrict itself to the sovereign functions and to restructure and reform the institutions of governance? What are the controls over Governance? How governance can be improved in Pakistan? 1.4 Scheme of the thesis The research has been divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 is introductory which explains the whole paper with its national and international context, its importance and objects etc. Chapter 2 explains how Pakistan has been facing governance problems right from its beginning. These problems were due to many reasons such as incompetent civil bureaucracy, frequent military interventions, incompetent politicians, lack of accountability system, and non independent judiciary. All these problems have not allowed to flourish Pakistan to become a developed state irrespective of that it has been blessed with both human and natural resources. Chapter 3 deals with the consequences of bad governance and problem of governance. Chapter 4 deals with the role of civil society, judiciary, media and other state building institutions. Chapter 5 deals with the conclusion and recommendations to improve the good governance. Pakistan has faced governance problem right from its very beginning. While most of the comparable countries of Asia which have prospered, started from a comparable low initial level of socio-economic conditions, but have over the period of several decades, created much more sound and stable social conditions. Even India has managed to come out of the classic image of low performance and governance ills, while Pakistan deteriorates on a continuing basis, despite claims of good performance and success. 1.5 Statement of the Problem Problems of governance have been endemic in our country ever since the unfortunate death of the father of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, only a year after the creation of Pakistan. Problems of governance seem to emanate from the unholy alliance between the then so-called political elite and the bureaucrats involved in politics. 4 This state of affairs has adversely affected the quality of life of over 180 million people of this country, making their life and liberty miserable. This situation warrants an in-depth study of the causes and their effects on lives and liberties of our people to establish objective face of current crisis of governance and the prospects of reforms and institutions building. 1.6 INTRODUCTION TO GOOD GOVERNANCE Recently the terms governance and good governance are being increasingly used in modern literature. Bad governance is being increasingly regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies. Major donors and international financial institutions are increasingly making their aid and loans depending on the condition that such reforms should be made that ensure good governance. Following paragraphs will try to explain, as simply as possible, what governance and good governance means. 1.7 Governance Meanings of governance: The World Bank defines governance as; The exercise of political authority and the use of institutional resources to manage societys problems and affairs. 6 An alternate definition suggests that governance is; The use of institutions, structures of authority and even collaboration to allocate resources and coordinate or control activity in society or the economy. English-speakers sometimes erroneously confuse the term governance with the term government. 6 David Bigman oxford publication ed:2011 The exercise of political authority and the use of institutional resources, p.1 5 According to the UNDPs Regional Project on Local Governance for Latin America: Governance has been defined as the rules of the political system to solve conflicts between actors and adopt decision (legality). It has also been used to describe the proper functioning of institutions and theft acceptance by the public (legitimacy), and it has been used to invoke the efficacy of government and the achievement of consensus by democratic means (participation). The concept of governance is not new, it is as old as human civilization. Simply put governance means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national governance and local governance7. Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made by the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision. Government is one of the actors in governance. Other actors involved in governance vary depending on the level of government that is under discussion. In rural areas, for example, other actors may include influential landlords, associations of peasant farmers, cooperatives, NGOs, research institutes, religious leaders, finance institutions, political parties and the military etc. The situation in urban areas is much more complex. 7. Khan, Hamid Carvan publication ed: March 4th 2004 Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan, p.1 6 At the national level, in addition to the above actors, media, lobbyists, international donors, multi-national corporations, etc., may play a role in decision-making or in influencing the decision-making process. All actors other than government and the military are grouped together as part of the civil society. In some countries in addition to the civil society, organized crime syndicates also influence decision-making, particularly in urban areas and at the national level. . Similarly formal government structures are one means by which decisions are arrived at and implemented. At the national level, informal decision-making structures, such as kitchen cabinets or informal advisors may exist. In urban areas, organized crime syndicates such as the Land Mafia may influence decision-making. In some rural areas locally powerful families may make or influence decision-making. Such, informal decision- making is often the result of corrupt practices or leads to corrupt practices. 8 1.8 Good Governance Good governance has eight major characteristics. It is participatory consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective, efficient, equitable, inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society. 9 8 http://www.unescap.org/pdd/prs/ProjectActivities/Ongoing/gg/governance.asp accessed on 23rd October 2012 9 Ibid. 7 1.8.1 Participation is key cornerstone of good governance Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. It is important to point out that representative democracy does not necessarily mean that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society would be taken into consideration in decision-making. Participation needs to be informed and organized. This means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand. 10 1.8.2 Rule of Law Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It also requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force. The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. The principle is intended to be a safeguard against arbitrary governance. In continental European legal thinking, rule of law is associated with a Rechtsstaat. According to Anglo-American thinking, hallmarks of adherence to the rule of law commonly include a clear separation of powers, legal certainty the principle of legitimate expectation and equality of all before the law.11 10. G.W.Chaudhary Oxford publications Ed:2007 Constitutional Development in Pakistan, p.180 11. Sir Henry Wheeler, Report of the Government of India Secretariat Committee, ( Delhi: Government of India Press, 1937), p.1 8 Some authors, as J. Shklar, claims that the phrase the Rule of Law has become meaningless due to ideological abuse and general over-use. Samuel Rutherford was one of the first modem authors to give the principle theoretical foundations in Lex, Rex (1644), and later Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws (1748). Rule of law is opposed by authoritarian and totalitarian states. The explicit policy of those governments, as evidenced in the Night and Fog decrees of Nazi Germany, is that the government possesses the inherent authority to act purely on its own volition and without being subject to any checks or limitations. Dictatorships generally establish secret police forces, which are not accountable to established laws, which can suppress threats to state authority. 12 Critiques on rule of law The rule of law, i.e., the application of the body of law to the government, does not restrict the government in any way since any desired government privilege can be made by the government into a legal provision. The rule of law should be seen as a bureaucratic hope for the government to jump through, rather than as a material restriction on government power. This criticism is though mostly relevant where the principle of the separation of powers is not respected (i.e., where the legislative power and the executive power the government-are held by the same body). When the government is not also the legislative body, the principle of the rule of law may hold. Another critique is that the principle of legal equality can be easily subverted since many laws affect different people in different ways. 12. Rowland Egger, Pub: Karachi: The Inter-Services Press, 1953 The Improvement of Public Administration in Pakistan; p.10 9 A law giving the legislators a raise, for example, affects the legislators in a different way than it affects the rest of the public. But since such laws are not necessarily made in accordance with the rule of law, it remains unclear if this criticism is really aimed at the principle of the rule of law itself rather than to actual legislatures. Marxist theory analyzed the capitalist state as an instrument of oppression of the people at the hands of the bourgeoisie, which set the laws to suit it. Following this, some critical theorists analyze the rule of law as a judicial fiction which aims at disguising the reality of violence and, in Marxist terminology class struggle. This theory presumes that the bourgeoisie holds the power to set the laws13. The Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben argues that the state of exception is at the core of the concept of sovereignty, and not the rule of law as liberal thinkers have it. While the sovereign claims to follow the rule of law, any protection the people have, however fundamental, can be thrown away once the government finds it convenient to do so.14 1.8.3 Transparency Transparency means that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media. 13. Rowland Egger, Pub: Karachi: The Inter-Services Press, 1953 The Improvement of Public Administration in Pakistan; p.18 14. Rowland Egger, Pub: Karachi: The Inter-Services Press, 1953 The Improvement of Public Administration in Pakistan; p.10 10 1.8.4 Responsiveness Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. 1.8.5 Consensus oriented society There are several actors and as many view points in a given society. Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community15. 1.8.6 Equity and Inclusiveness A societys well-being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society. This requires all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being. 1.8.7 Effective and efficient administration Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment. 16 15. Syed Mujawar Hussain Shah, Pub: West view Press, Ed: 1995 Religion and Politics in Pakistan, p.68 16. Ibid 11 1.8.8 Accountability Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not only public institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Who is accountable to who varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law17. Now it should be clear that good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality. 1.9 Good governance: an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal. Major donors and international financial institutions, like the IMF or World Bank, are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that those reforms ensuring good governance are undertaken13. 1.10 What does Good Governance Ensures? Governance ensures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account, and the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. 17. Dr. Rafique Ahmad, Pub: Asia Publishing House, 1964 Pakistan: Political History, p.102 12 It also makes certain, the participation by both men and women, participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. Participation also means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand, other factors that good governance guarantees are full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities, independent judiciary, an impartial and incorruptible police force. 1.11 International Pledges: Through United Nations Convention against corruption in its resolution 55/61, the General Assembly recognized that an effective international legal instrument against corruption, independent of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime was desirable. The text of the Convention was negotiated during seven sessions held between 21 January 2002 and 1 October 2003. The Convention was adopted by the General Assembly on 31 October 2003, and Pakistan is signatory of it. 18 18. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/ accessed on 26th October 2012 13 CHAPTER 2 PROBLEMS OF GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN Pakistan inherited a well functioning structure of judiciary, civil service and military but a relatively weak legislative oversight at the time of its independence. Over time the domination of civil service and military in the affairs of the state disrupted the evolution of the democratic political processes and further weakened the legislative organ of the state. The judicial arm, with a few exceptions, clump along to purify the dominant role of the military and the civil service. 2.1 Constitutional Aspects Criterion of governance, as provided in the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 is incorporated in the following articles. Article 4 of the constitution guarantees rule of law in Pakistan and it makes Government duty bound to deal with the rights of the individuals in accordance with law, it is to be noted that the article uses the word in accordance with law not in accordance with the law which means the framer of the Constitution wished to give this rule of law clause a wider scope rather than to be limited to some specified laws. Articles 8 to 28 provided in the Constitution are not only rights provided to the citizen but auto-limitations in these rights also provide guiding principles to the Government to go for Good Governance remaining within the auto limits of these Fundamental Rights. For instance in Benazir Bhutto vs. Federation of Pakistan19 it was held that the Constitution has provided auto-limitations, or in-built restraints, on the exercise of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed the Constitution. 19. PLD 1988 SC 416 14 Such auto-limitations or inbuilt restraints not only provide protection to the rights themselves, but also further the interest of social solidarity, sought to be achieved by the makers of the Constitution. Articles 78 to 88, and Articles 118 to 127 and Articles 160 to 171 provides practical procedure for the Financial Governance of the Government both at the Federal and Provincial level, the exact follow-up of the procedure results in Good Financial Governance. 2.2 Kinds of governance in Pakistan. Governance by Federal Government The Constitution provides Articles 90 to 100 for the Federal Governance for Federal Government. Governance by Provincial Government The Constitution provides Articles 129 to 140 for the Provincial Governance for Provincial Government. III- Governance by Local Government The Constitution provides Articles 140/A for the Local Body Governance for Local Government. 2.3 Conflict of Governance and their Constitutional Solutions: The conflict of governance and their solution are dealt in Articles 141 to 144, and article 143 especially deals with Federal, Provincial and District governance Article 152/A, and articles 153 to 159 also provide means to resolve conflict of governance. Here the council of common interest is worth mentioning. It also provides a plane to resolve conflict of Governance amount Federal and Provincial Governments. 15 The Council of Common Interest is a vital constitutional body. Its main object is to care for the common interest of all the provinces. It is the best tool available to resolve the differences, problems and disputes between the Provinces and the Federation. It regulates the policies in relation to the matters in Part II of the Federal Legislative list. The limits of the Council of Common Interest can be understood by the following Case Law. Shamsuddin Qurashi Vs. Finance Member, Railway Board20 It was held that functions of the Council of Common Interests is to formulate and regulate policies with regard to the matters relating to the affairs of the Federation. It has nothing to do with power of the Parliament to legislate or the executive authority of the Federal Government to deal with the employees of the Federal Government. 2.4 The Quran as a Guide line for Good Governance read with Article 227 of the Constitution of Pakistan 1973: O ye who believe! Stand out firmly for Qist (justice), as witnesses to God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts {of your hearts), lest ye swerve, and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do. [4/135] And O my people! Give measure and weight in Qist (justice) and reduce not the things that are due to the people, and do not commit mischief in the land causing corruption. [Prophet Shoaib (PBUH) to the people of Madyan 11:85] 20. 1980 PLC (C.S) 207 16 2.5 Civil Bureaucracy and Governance Civil Service in Pakistan is a permanent institution and has to be above party politics. Bureaucracy as a whole remains unchanged with the change of political governments barring transfers with the Ministries / Departments. The history of bureaucracy is not up to the mark, the years in which an elected civilian executive exercised control over bureaucracy. Later on the civilian bureaucracy more or less dominated at all levels of governance. After that the military bureaucracy assumed more or less direct command of all policy making. Then there were years when nobody was really in charge. In terms of performance, the period between 1947 to 1969 was probably the best. Pakistan overcame severe initial challenges and embarked upon an impressive modernization program. The Ayubs regime was better in terms of the countrys economic conditions but bureaucracy take over the key positions of the country which mostly proved to be corrupt and they adversely affected the governance of the country2 1. During the Zia era, bureaucracy was little comfortable with him and a marginal recovery of the conditions of service brought some stabilization in civil service. Bureaucracy was in line with government but it totally failed to provide justice, fair play and merit to the people of Pakistan. In both Benazir and Nawaz Sharif era bureaucracy was fully involved in politics and merit was totally ignored, Corruption was at its peak. As mostly bureaucrats were incompetent so they failed to deliver good governance in the country. During post 1999 era, bureaucracy was the worst hit segment of state apparatus. Musharraf in pursuit of perpetuation of his illegitimate rule tried to bulldoze anything and everything that he thought may hinder his adventure for power. 21. Panandiker, Sudha publishers Ed: 2009 Problems of Governance in South Asia, p 212-213 17 By introducing PCO judges in superior judiciary, he involved his military in routine administrative matters ranging from collection of electricity bills to managing state owned public enterprises. He introduced the Devolution of Power Plan 2000, doing away with the centuries old time-tested administrative service, without realizing its adverse consequences. Placing the civil bureaucracy subordinate to a local government representative namely Nazim of the district was an attempt to put the cart before the horse, which did not work22. 2.6 Frequent Military Interventions From the ancient centers of civilizations in China, Egypt, India and Persia to the classical Hellenic and Roman empires, feudal domains, medieval aristocracies and more recent enlightened despotisms of Europe, it was the sword that dominated the spirit18. It shows that whenever military interfered in the civil government, it has destroyed the whole system of governance the same holds truth for Pakistan. Military has interfered the country many times, much to the destruction of whole democratic system and governance. It has never allowed the state building institutions to flourish so that they could help to maintain good governance in the country. Had military not frequently intervened in the internal administration of the country, we would have a fully developed system of administration in the country and we would have not faced the governance problem. Once the military acquainted itself with the taste of political power, the entire fabric of the constitutional development came crashing down. 23 22. Ilhan Niaz, Karachi: Oxford University Press, Ed: 2010, The Culture of Power and Governance of Pakistan p138-141 23 Ibid 18 Due to clash of legitimacy and prudence, Pakistan has been trapped in a cycle of instability with the military and civilian political leadership destabilizing each other24. The age old Doctrine of necessity has paved the way for military for martial laws. The history of these doctrines can be traced in following cases. Dosso Vs. Federation of Pakistan25, In Dossos case (1958), the Pakistan Supreme Court used jurist Hans Kelsens theory that a revolution can be justified when the basic norm underlying a Constitution disappears and a new system is put in its place. Molvi Tamiz-ud-din Khan Case26, in Molvi Tamizuddin Khan case, the Supreme Court headed by Chief Justice Mohammad Munir backed Governor General Ghulam Mohammads action to dissolve the first Constitutional Assembly. This judgement of the Supreme Court is always strongly criticized by all democratic parties of Pakistan and is referred to as a root-cause of unstable democracy in Pakistan. Nusrat Bhutto Vs. Chief of Army staff and Federation of Pakistan27 On November 10, 1977 the Supreme Court unanimously validated the imposition of the martial law, under the doctrine of necessity. The law of necessity recognized and upheld by Pakistans highest judicial body, has proved an honorable protection for military adventure in civil government. 24. Shahrukh Rafi Khan, Fozia Sadik Khan and Aasim Sajjad Akhtar, Initiating Devolution for Service Delivery in Pakistan: Ignoring the Power Structure (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2007), 4 25. PLD 1958 SC 533 26. PLD 1955 F.C 24 27. PLD 1977 SC 657 19 2.7 End of Doctrine of Necessity in Pakistan a good sign for governance in Pakistan In PCO Judges case on July 31, 2009, the full bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, decided once and for all that the doctrine of necessity is absolutely inapplicable in Pakistan and such precedent can never be cited in

Saturday, January 18, 2020

The Real Tragedy of Oedipus the King Is That of All Humanity

the real tragedy of oedipus is that of all humanity: we cannot escape our destiny. The greatest tragedy of Oedipus is that as human we cannot escape our destiny. This is shown in the play, ‘Oedipus the king’ by Sophocles. The main character, Oedipus is caught in the problem of fate and destiny. Oedipus, as the king is in a position of power. In this position he becomes quite superior and proud of himself, this becomes a tragic flaw. Ironically, many years before the play is set, Oedipus tries to escape his fate.It is ironic because in doing this he ends up running straight towards it. The play is made to make us understand that as humans we are powerless against death, and it is true that we are born to die. Firstly, in the play it is ironic that Oedipus tries to run away from his destiny but ends up running straight towards it. When he is younger he hears from a oracle that he is doomed to ‘kill is father and marry his mother’. Thinking that the oracle is r eferring to Polybus and Merope he flees towards Thebes to try to escape his ‘destiny’.It is ironic that while fleeing what he believes is his fate, he runs straight toward it. On page 205 Oedipus quotes the oracle saying, ‘you are fated to couple with your mother, you will bring a breed of children into the light no man can bear to see- you will kill your father, the one who gave you life! ’ Oedipus then says, ‘I heard all that and ran. I abandoned Corinth, from that day I gauged its landfall only by the stars, running, always running toward some place where I would never see the shame of all those oracle come true. This quote perfectly captures the idea of Oedipus not running away from his fate but straight towards it. The audience experiences dramatic irony in this scene as they know something that the characters do not. In the play, this is a point of mimesis for the characters, but also the audience, when they realise that Oedipus made a great fau lt, in running from Corinth. The repetitive idea of Oedipus ‘running’ from where he believes is a cursed place for him, to the place where the tragedy will unravel with paucity, is evocative and makes our pathos toward Oedipus greater.The ironic idea of Oedipus running ‘towards’ his fate rather than away, proves the point that as humans our greatest tragedy is the fact that we cannot escape our destiny. Secondly, as humans we are very proud and do not like to be taken down from the pedestal we put ourselves on. This is true also for Oedipus, where his hubris or his pride, forbids him from believing that he is the one responsible for the plague. In this way his hubris becomes his hamartia and he cannot believe it is his fault until the moment of cognizance a couple of pages later.An example of Oedipus showing his hubris is when Tiresias reveals that he is the murder and Oedipus replies with a threat, ‘that obscenity, twice, by god, you’ll payâ⠂¬â„¢. Oedipus’ pride gets in the way of him acknowledging that he is not only the protagonist but also the antagonist. He is unable to recognize the truth in Tiresias’ words. This is once again dramatic irony to the audience in which they are aware of Oedipus’ guiltiness, but he is not. Another example of his pride getting in the way, is when instead of accepting the blame he decides that Creon has planned his downfall, in a way to throw him off his throne.Oedipus says, ‘Creon! Is this his conspiracy or yours? ’, to which Tiresias replies, ‘Creon is not your downfall, no, you are your own. ’ Even after both of these occurrences, Oedipus’ hubris stops him from realising the facts. This is another reason for the fact that as humans we are unable to escape our destiny, because of the pride and superiority that we hold for ourselves In conclusion, it is true that as humans we are unable to escape our destiny.This is shown in Sophocl es famous play, ‘Oedipus the King’. First of all because even though Oedipus tries to outrun his fate, he ends up running straight towards it. This is shown from the way he flees Corinth from his supposed ‘parents’ to Thebes where his biological parents are. It is also shown in humans pride and arrogance that we hold ourselves to. This is shown in Oedipus through his ignorance to the facts. From this we are able to see that we cannot escape destiny as humans.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Organizational Approaches to studying the human body Essay

There are seven organizational approaches to studying the human body. The first would be body planes and body directions. The body can be divided up into three sections, front and back, top to bottom, and left to right. The names of those three planes are the coronal, the transverse, and the sagittal planes. When you are studying organs or tissues you could use this approach to make sure the job gets done to the most accurate degree. Looking at the lungs, brains, and joints can be difficult sometimes so in that case you would use the body and planes approach. The body can be studied also according to the body cavity approach and by looking at the major internal organs. Most of the time that you see this approach being used the reasoning is to look deeper into the body and find disease. When conducting a physical exam on someone they may use an approach to identify where your internal organs are placed called the quadrants and regions approach. There are four quadrants, URQ, ULQ, LLQ, and LRQ. There are also nine regions. The nine regions are the right and left hypochondriac, the epigastric region, the right and left lumbar regions and the umbilical region; finally there is the right and left inguinal regions along with the hypogastric regions. This approach works the best when being given a physical exam for school sports or whatever. The next approach that may be used to study the human body would be the anatomy and physiology approach. This approach can be used for studying the structures in the body and how they react to certain things that you may or may not do on a daily basis. This approach is also good for examining and studying cells or the nervous system. Microscopic and macroscopic may sound similar but they are far different. This approach can be best exercised in looking to see how cells combine to make a larger cell. Next on the list is the body systems approach. In this approach you can easily study the circulatory system as well as the respiratory system. The last and final approach that you can study the human body with is the medical specialty approach. In this approach you are able to study the human body for medical use.